Pregnancy & Birth Mankato MN

Many women dream of having children, but there are many important things to know about being pregnant and giving birth. If you are trying to become pregnant or already are and have questions about the development of the fetus, miscarriage, giving birth and labor, read on.
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Young Woman Ask the Expert - Pregnancy Mankato MN

Hemolytic disease of the newborn is caused by incompatibility between maternal and fetal red blood cells (RBC). If the fetus has a Rh positive (Rh+) RBC and the mother has Rh negative (Rh-) RBC, she becomes immunized by exposure to Rh+ fetal RBC with the production of antibodies that react with fetal RBC causing hemolytic disease. If your third baby is Rh+ , he can be affected.

One Step Conservative Surgery in Anterior Placenta Percreta by Pfannenstiel Incision Mankato MN

Nowadays, for the treatment of placenta accreta/percreta, there is the possibility of hysterectomy, as well as that of leaving the placenta in situ with or without adding metotrexate. However, this latter conservative technique isaccompanied by a high rate of reoccurrence in following pregnancies.

Miscarriages and Their Reasons Mankato MN

There are a lot of reasons why miscarriages are happening. We can distinguish 3 groups (reasons) due to the container, reasons due to the content, and reasons due to failing relationship between container and contents.

Intrauterine Infection/Inflammation during Pregnancy and Offspring Brain Damages Mankato MN

Intrauterine infection is considered as one of the major maternal insults during pregnancy. Intrauterine infection during pregnancy could lead to brain damage of the developmental fetus and offspring. Effects on the fetal, newborn, and adult central nervous system (CNS) may include signs of neurological problems, developmental abnormalities and delays, and intellectual deficits.

Understanding Miscarriage Mankato MN

Technically, a miscarriage is any pregnancy loss that occurs during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, which is approximately up to the 5th month. (The formal medical term for a miscarriage is "spontaneous abortion," but many doctors disagree with this terminology because of the confusion this creates with pregnancy terminations, which are also called "abortions"). Miscarriages are unfortunately very common.

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A Case of Prenatal Renal Vein Thrombosis, Intrauterine Death of Twin II Mankato MN

A 33 years old Caucasian woman with a previous healthy male child was booked into the antenatal Clinic at 11weeks gestation. Ultrasound scan confirmed a viable dichorionic twin pregnancy. Antenatal progress was uncomplicatedand serial ultrasound scans demonstrated normal growth, normal liquor volume and normal Doppler flow of both twinsuntil 32 weeks.

Adhesion-Prevention Strategy in C-Sections: Focus on Risk Reduction Mankato MN

The increased use of C-section procedures presents some important health considerations for specialists in maternal fetal medicine. section. Based on findings and continuing trends in the incidence and impact of C-sections, obstetrical practices are increasingly considering strategies to help reduce the risk of adhesi

An Educational Short Story on Gestational Age Mankato MN

This short story is here in the hopes that it will make understanding the dates of menstrual cycles and pregnancies easier to follow. For more specific information the following discussion is provided. This is a fictional scenario that is based on many encounters with similar patient confusion during a career in sonography.

Are You Planning to Start a Family? Mankato MN

Planning to start a family is an exciting time. Many women and theirpartners wonder if there is anything they can do to help make this both successful and safe. In fact there aremany things that can be done to increase the chances of a healthy mother and baby.

Breastfeeding - Flat or Inverted Nipples Mankato MN

Some mothers can draw their inverted nipples out with just one pumping session. Others may need to continue pumping for days, weeks, or even months,depending on the degree of inversion and the baby’s sucking patterns. If the nipple inverts again during pauses in the baby’s feeding, you may need to stop and pump again for a few minutes and then put him back on the breast.

Breastfeeding After a Cesarean Mankato MN

An operative birth versus a vaginal birth can impact the breastfeeding experience in several ways. Mothers who have eagerly anticipated a vaginal birth may feel disappointed and inadequate because their expectations haven’t been met, and they may even be afraid that because they ‘failed’ at giving birth, they may also fail at breastfeeding.

C/Sections Mankato MN

There are pros and cons to both repeat c/sections and an attempt at vaginal delivery, so patients should be well-versedon both so that they can make an informed decision regarding their health care. While an attempt at vaginal deliverafter a low-transverse c/section is usually quite safe, current medical standards clearly show that women who havehad a classical c/section should ∗not∗ undergo an attempt at vaginal delivery, since the chance of uterine ruptureis too high to risk.

Case Report: Primary Hepatic Pregnancy Mankato MN

ctopic Pregnancy is a potentially fatal condition if not diagnosed and treated on time. The incidence of Abdominal Pregnancy is 1.4% of all ectopic pregnancy, of which Primary Intrahepatic Pregnancy constitutes only 0.03 %. Clinical suspicion is important in the early diagnosis of an Ectopic Pregnancy. Following a positive urine or serum B-HCG, a transvaginal ultrasonography should be performed early to rule out an ectopic gestation.

Clinical Applications and Limitations of Current Ovarian Stem Cell Research: A Review Mankato MN

This review provides a status report for a promising area of research, (1) to summarize recent findings in the literature with respect to the validity of the original hypothesis proffered by the Tilly group, and, (2) to gauge the potential utility of ovarian stem cells as a treatment for certain forms of human infertility.

Coffee Talk: Folic Acid Prevents Birth Defect Mankato MN

Neural tube defects are the second most common serious fetal malformations inthe United States, surpassed only by congenital heart disease. Each year in this country, they affect approximately4,000 pregnancies for a frequency of 2 to 4 per 1,000 live births. Of the survivors, The Centers for Disease Controlhas estimated that the lifetime cost of care per individual approaches $300,000. The term...

Coffee Talk: Morning Sickness Mankato MN

Of all the aches, pains, and discomforts of pregnancy, morning sickness is probablyone of the most dreaded. Up to 80% of all pregnancies will be affected by some degree of nausea and vomiting. Althoughthis can happen at any time during the day, the mornings tend to be especially troublesome for most pregnant women.Although the exact cause is not known for sure, most likely it is related to the rising levels of hormones associatedwith the pregnancy.

Coffee Talk: Smoking In Pregnancy Mankato MN

Cigarette smoking is one of the most dangerous activities encountered during pregnancy.It is also the largest preventable cause of death and illness among American women in general.

Coffee Talk: When Your Baby is Breech Mankato MN

In the vast majority of term pregnancies the fetus will be in the vertex , or "head-down" position at delivery.When the fetus is not in this position it is referred to as breech. Early in pregnancy the breech position is common.However, when the pregnant woman approaches her due date only 3% of babies will remain in the breech position.

Delivery after Caesarean Section Mankato MN

At present there is no method to predict which patients are likely to sustain uterine rupture which is the main risk of trial of scar and may occur even with optimum management of intrapartum care. In order to make trial of labour safer, it is important to have a high index of suspicion such that detection of uterine rupture is not delayed and early detection is followed by rapid intervention to improve maternal and fetal outlook.

Doctor, I Don't Want to Get Pregnant! Mankato MN

A pregnancy in the perimenopausal time would be a difficult occurrence in the lives of many women and could create some very difficult choices. Her likely decisions, should she have to confront these choices, should also be a factor in her choices of contraception. While the chances of conceiving are certainly lower at this age, they are not zero until the FSH has risen and the menses have ceased for a year. Women in the perimenopausal period have to carefully weigh all their options, along with their choices and ramifications in the event of a failure, when considering contraception during this transition time period of their life.

Early Cord Clamping and Its Effect on Some Hematological Determinants of Blood Viscosity Mankato MN

Polycythemia defined as a hematocrit over 0.65, affects 2-6% of all newborn infants (15,24). Neonatalpolycythemia may be associated with a high incidence of developmental and neurological abnormalities at one toseven years of age (3). Shohat and Ramamurthy (16,21) demonstrated a marked increase in the hematocrit and bloodviscosity during the first hours of postnatal life and suggested that the time of blood sampling should be consideredin the diagnosis of polycythemia and hyperviscosity.

Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with Recurrent Cesarean Section Morbidity Mankato MN

Each morbidity was statistically analysed and compared to that of the controlgroup. The study group was statistically evaluated to correlate between the number of previous C.S andmorbidity. Total scores of risk factors which are included in cases with either intra and/or postoperative morbidity were compared in both groups to evaluate which factor lead to morbidity.

Experiences of Professional Support During Pregnancy and Childbirth Mankato MN

Clarity in terms of defining responsibilities is necessary during pregnancy and childbirth, both among care providers and between the woman and the care provider. Furthermore, a decision must be made concerning how to delegate, transfer or share diabetes responsibility during labour between the care providers and the parents-to-be.

Heparin Use in Management of Early Onset Severe Preeclampsia Mankato MN

Multiple inherited thrombophilias also may interact at the maternal-fetal interface. Consistent with Mendelian inheritance, the fetus will inherit 1 of the maternal alleles at each gene of the clotting-cascade proteins. Chronologically, the fetal arterial supply is established as maternal spiral arteries perfuse the intervillous spaces, with the maternal and fetal blood supply of the placenta present 3 to 4 weeks after conception. Histologically, evidence of placental ischemia can be found on either the maternal or fetal side. It is unknown whether the risk of placental compromise is greater in the presence of maternal or fetal thrombophilia, alone or in combination.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Mankato MN

While morning sickness can occur in up to 70% of all pregnancies, it is usually more troublesome than serious. The more severe and disturbing condition, hyperemesis gravidarum, may complicate up to .3% of pregnancies, causing physiological changes that may effect the mother and fetus.

ICSI or IVF: No Difference in Babies Who Were Freeze-thawing Embryos Mankato MN

Analysis of the longest running ICSI programme in the United States has found reassuring evidence that babies born from frozen embryos fertilised via ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) do just as well as those born from frozen embryos fertilised via standard IVF treatment. The researchers also compared babies born as a result of cycles in which the women had additional hormone medication with babies born as a result of unmedicated, natural cycles, and, although they found a slightly higher rate of malformations in babies born from medicated cycles, the difference was small – 2.2% versus 0.4%.

IMOP: Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Outpatient Cervical Ripening with Isosorbide Mononitrate (IMN) Mankato MN

Shrikant Bollapragada , Fiona Mackenzie , John Norrie , Stavros Petrou , Margaret Reid , Ian A Greer , Inass Osman and Jane E Norman   Published 25 July 2006 Abstract (provisional) Study protocol Background There is increasing interest in carrying out pre-induction cervical ripening on an outpatient basis. However, there are concerns about the use of prostaglandins, the agents commonly used...

Information on Miscarriages - The Double Whammy Mankato MN

A miscarriage after infertility treatment is a double whammy, and adds insult to injury. Many infertile women, who have worked so hard to get pregnant, only to then lose it, find it extremely difficult to come to terms with a miscarriage The vast majority are simply not prepared , and find it nearly impossible to cope.

Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy Mankato MN

ICP, otherwise known as Obstetric Cholestasis (OC), refers to a specific liver condition in which the normal flow of bile is impaired in a woman's body resulting severe itching and more rarely, jaundice. Although ICP has been reported as early as a few weeks pregnant, it is more common for it to begin in the third trimester, when hormone concentrations are at their highest levels.

Intrauterine Infection/Inflammation during Pregnancy and Offspring Brain Damages Mankato MN

Intrauterine infection is considered as one of the major maternal insults during pregnancy. Intrauterine infection during pregnancy could lead to brain damage of the developmental fetus and offspring. Effects on the fetal, newborn, and adult central nervous system (CNS) may include signs of neurological problems, developmental abnormalities and delays, and intellectual deficits.

Life in the Postpartum Lane Mankato MN

Most women experience a normal period of adjustment to the demands of motherhood,as they work to create a new balance in life. This adjustment period impacts the couple relationship as it worksto accommodate the new changes. Moodiness and symptoms may persist, sometimes for several months.

Living through Hospital Bed Rest Mankato MN

How does the hospitalized expectant mother deal with the complexities faced with her situation? Here are a few suggestions, which are based on the experiences of several Sidelines volunteers (including the author) and how they managed their hospital bed rest. Just a few pointers.

Low Levels of Vitamin B12 May Increase Risk for Neural Tube Defects Mankato MN

Because low folate levels are a known risk factor for neural tube defects, the researchers used statistical techniques to evaluate the role of Vitamin B12 independently of the role of folate. In all three groups, women with low B12 concentrations (estimated at less than 250 ng/L, before pregnancy) had 2.5-3 times the risk of having a child with a neural tube defect compared to those with higher levels.

Maternal Serum Alpha-fetoprotein Levels in Fetal Hydrocephalus: A Retrospective Population Based Study Mankato MN

Although maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) is a highly sensitive marker for certain congenital malformations such as open neural tube and ventral wall defects, its usefulness as a screening test for fetal hydrocephalus is uncertain. We wished to determine the distribution of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels associated with fetal hydrocephalus in a population-based screening program in Manitoba, and their potential relationship to additional anomalies.

Menopause and Pregnancy Mankato MN

A woman's ovaries contain over six million eggs at about the halfway point in her development inside her own mother's uterus (four and one half months of gestation). These eggs begin to disintegrate, or atrophy, even while she is still a fetus, and by the time she is born there are only around one to two million eggs left in her ovaries.

Miscarriage: Why it Happens and How Best To Reduce Your Risks Mankato MN

Since 60 percent of all miscarriages occur because of the accidental event of chromosomal miscombination, trying to find the "cause" of this random event will not help a couple avoid a similar outcome in a future pregnancy. However, if there is some reason to suspect that another factor is at work--such as an anatomic, hormonal, environmental, infectious, or genetic abnormalit--then further testing is appropriate.

Miscarriages and Their Reasons Mankato MN

There are a lot of reasons why miscarriages are happening. We can distinguish 3 groups (reasons) due to the container, reasons due to the content, and reasons due to failing relationship between container and contents.

Molar Pregnancy Mankato MN

Molar pregnancies are an uncommon and very frightening complication of pregnancy. The formal medical term for a molar pregnancy is “hydatidiform mole.” Simply put, a molar pregnancy is an abnormality of the placenta (afterbirth), caused by a problem when the egg and sperm join together at fertilization. The following is a brief review of this complicated subject.

Nausea and Vomiting During Pregnancy Mankato MN

While the exact cause of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is not understood, there may be a link between relaxationof the muscle fibers within the walls of the stomach muscle. Other researchers have noticed changes in bacteriacounts in women who have morning sickness. They have found higher than normal levels of a bacteria called helicobacterpylori, which also seems to cause ulcers. Research is ongoing to see if certain antibiotics will treat hyperemesis.Others have found a link to the chemical serotonin, and to elevated levels of the pregnancy hormone HCG.

Neonatal Resuscitation: Life that Failed Mankato MN

Neonatology, perinatology and neonatal resuscitation developed to a great extent during the 1970’s in response to an epidemic of litigation involving birth brain injury; fetal monitoring was detecting fetal distress in utero, and specialized perinatal intensive care promised great improvement in neonatal morbidity and mortality. Today, in US hospitals, if a child is born alive, the chances of it dying within a few days are virtually zero; even some babies without a heartbeat are resuscitated.

Obstetrics Case Report: Shoulder Dystocia Mankato MN

Obstetric emergencies require quick and decisive action to save the life of the mother and the child. Severe hypertensive disorder, haemorrhage and embolism all threaten the life of the mother. The fetus is directly threatened by umbilical cord accidents, other forms of hypoxia and mechanical delivery problems. Death of the mother was frequent in the early part of the twentieth century in the UK, but due to advances made, this is now less common.

One Step Conservative Surgery in Anterior Placenta Percreta by Pfannenstiel Incision Mankato MN

Nowadays, for the treatment of placenta accreta/percreta, there is the possibility of hysterectomy, as well as that of leaving the placenta in situ with or without adding metotrexate. However, this latter conservative technique isaccompanied by a high rate of reoccurrence in following pregnancies.

Oversupply: Too Much Milk Mankato MN

Although concern about not having enough milk is the number one reasonthat mothers wean their babies early, having too much milk can also be aproblem. When you consider the factthat a small percentage of women don’t have the capacity to produce enoughmilk for their babies no matter what they do, then having too much milk is arelatively good breastfeeding problem to have, and is usually fairly easy toresolve.

Pediatrician Mankato MN

Ultrasound lets the doctor check on some aspects of the baby's health, especially those that involve the baby's structure and size. There are other tests that can be used together with ultrasound to get extra information about the baby.

Polymorphisms in the Human Progesterone Receptor and Clinical Response to 17 Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate Mankato MN

17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) has been shown to reduce the recurrence risk of spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). Our aim was to assess if women with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human progesterone receptor (hPR) are more or less likely to respond to 17OHPC for the prevention of recurrent SPTB.

Possible Causes and Treatments of Episiotomy Pain Mankato MN

After an episiotomy or tear, the doctor or midwife should inspect the vagina, cervix, perineum, and anus to makesure there are no other damaged areas. If pain is a problem, the area should be injected withnovocaine, or, ifnecessary, the patient should be offered an IV shot of strong painkillers. In some cases a large tear of the cervixand/or vagina requires repair under epidural or general anesthesia in the operating room. Most women, however,have a 2nd-degree tear of the vagina, which can be repaired right in the delivery room.

Pre-eclampsia Mankato MN

Medical researchers have been diligently trying to discover what causes pre eclampsia. Much of the frustration doctors have treating this condition is that we do not know what causes it. A number of theories have been proposed, including abnormalities with the placenta (afterbirth), a problem with the immune system, a hereditary (genetic)link, and defects of the blood clotting mechanism.

Prenatal Learning� What is it and When Does it Begin? Mankato MN

Educators and health professionals alike have long stressed the importance of cognitive development for children ages zero to three. While this period of development is undeniably crucial, it is important to note that a baby’s brain actually begins to form cells during the third week of pregnancy – a time when the brain is also open to stimulation and learning and a time when such an enriched environment is absolutely necessary in every regard.

Preterm Contractions in Community Settings Mankato MN

The following 2 articles appeared in the “Green Journal” in 1998. I wrote a commentary on them at that time. Now, 9 years later, I find most of that commentary is still true. I have added a few additional comments and describe the “I once had a patient” syndrome.   R. Daniel Braun, MD   Preterm Contractions in Community Settings: I. Treatment of Preterm Contractions William J Hueston,...

Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Mankato MN

As soon as a pregnancy becomes recognized, each (prospective) parent generallystarts to accept and plan for their new arrival. If the pregnancy is lost, this is often considered a "deathwithin the family" and the couple will go through an intense grieving process. The loss of a pregnancy canbe devastating for a couple, regardless of the number of children in the family or the cause for the loss.

Sensitive Detection of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7-Specific T Cells Mankato MN

Cervical cancer is the second most common gynecological cancer amongst women world-wide. Despite optimized protocols, standard treatments still face several disadvantages. Therefore, research aims at the development of immune-based strategies using tumor antigen-loaded dendritic cells for the induction of cellular anti-tumor immunity.

Smoking and Reproduction: The Oviduct as a Target of Cigarette Smoke Mankato MN

Exposure to cigarette smoke may be either active or passive, and the type of smoke inhaled in each case has a different origin. Mainstream smoke is the smoke that an active smoker inhales with each puff, while sidestream smoke, the main component of environmental tobacco smoke, burns off the end of a lit cigarette and is the smoke inhaled by passive smokers. While the association between inhalation of mainstream smoke and cardiovascular disease and cancer has been established for many years, the impact of smoking on reproduction is recognized, but less well characterized and less well known.

Successful Obstetrical Management of 110-day Intertwin Delivery Interval Without Cerclage Mankato MN

The incidence of twin gestation has increased in recent years, a trend influenced in part by greater utilization of the assisted reproductive technologies. In this report, we describe a conservative approach culminating in vaginal delivery of a viable second twin 110 days after delivery of a preterm stillbirth.

Thrombomodulin and Antithrombin-III as Evidence for Varied Activation of the Coagulation Cascade Mankato MN

The current study was conducted to understand the relevance of the endothelium to subsequent activation of the coagulation cascade and to determine the changes of two natural anticoagulant factors, circulating TM levels and AT-III activity, in pre-eclamptic pregnancies.

Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy: Laparoscopy vs. Laparotomy Mankato MN

Laparoscopic surgery was performed using three ports. Following the establishment of pneumoperitoneum, a 10 mm 00 laparoscope was introduced through an 11 mm cannula in intra-umbilical incision. After a confirmation of the diagnosis and laparoscopic treatment was deemed possible, a 5 mm puncture was made in the left and right lower quadrant using direct visualization and transillumination to avoid the epigastric vessels with continuous high flow carbon dioxide insufflators.

Understanding Miscarriage Mankato MN

Technically, a miscarriage is any pregnancy loss that occurs during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, which is approximately up to the 5th month. (The formal medical term for a miscarriage is "spontaneous abortion," but many doctors disagree with this terminology because of the confusion this creates with pregnancy terminations, which are also called "abortions"). Miscarriages are unfortunately very common.

Vaginal Birth after Cesarean (VBAC) Mankato MN

There are several reasons why a woman should want to attempt a vaginal delivery. First of all, there are more risks involved for the mother with a cesarean section, it is after all, major abdominal surgery. This means that there is more of a chance for blood loss, transfusion, and infection. There will be more days spent in the hospital after delivery, and the overall recovery time at home for the mother is much longer than the recovery from a vaginal delivery. In addition, the hospital costs can be more than twice as expensive.

Young Woman Ask the Expert - Pregnancy Mankato MN

Hemolytic disease of the newborn is caused by incompatibility between maternal and fetal red blood cells (RBC). If the fetus has a Rh positive (Rh+) RBC and the mother has Rh negative (Rh-) RBC, she becomes immunized by exposure to Rh+ fetal RBC with the production of antibodies that react with fetal RBC causing hemolytic disease. If your third baby is Rh+ , he can be affected.

You've Had a Miscarriage - What Now? Mankato MN

The process of having a miscarriage can be frightening, painful, and tremendously disappointing. If you had just had a miscarriage, you may be upset and confused about what you have just been through. You may feel that something you did brought on your miscarriage. You may be fearful that you will never have a baby--or another baby, if you already have children.